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“Critical stages” of prosecution where defendant has right to counsel

Attorney Chis Donovan posted some interesting research on WACDL’s listserv last week.  He was looking into what constitutes a “critical stage” of a criminal prosecution at which the defendant is entitled to counsel.  He cautioned readers to “key cite” the cases before using them. On Point includes Donovan’s list here  and has indexed it so you can find it on our Archive Page under “VIII. Counsel, 6th Am, A. Right to Counsel, 2. critical stage” next time you need it!

Interrogations: Massiah v. United States, 377 U.S. 201 (1964)
Line-ups: United States v. Wade, 388 U.S. 218 (1967)
Preliminary hearings: White v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 59 (1963)
Arraignment: Hamilton v. Alabama, 368 U.S. 52 (1961)
Bail determinations: Coleman v. Alabama, 399 U.S. 1 (1970)
Plea bargaining: Padilla v. Kentucky, 130 S.Ct. 1473 (2010)
Communication of plea offers: Missouri v. Frye, 132 S.Ct. 1399 (2012)
Guilty plea: Argersinger v. Hamlin, 407 U.S. 25 (1972)
Pretrial psychological evaluation: Estelle v. Smith, 451 U.S. 454 (1981)
Jury selection: Gomez v. United States, 490 U.S. 858 (1989)
Sentencing: Glover v. United States, 531 U.S. 198 (2001)
Appeal: Halbert v. Michigan, 545 U.S. 605 (2005)

For more on how to determine whether a particular stage is “critical” thus entitling the defendant to counsel, see Wayne R. LaFave et al, “Right to Counsel: Stage of the Proceeding,”  3 Crim. Proc. §11.2(b)(3d ed.)(Dec. 2014).

Feel free to add to the list using the “comment” box below. Thanks, Chris!
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