State v. Tony G. Longmire, 2004 WI App 90
For Longmire: Charles B. Vetzner, SPD, Madison Appellate
¶13. Restitution awarded under Wis. Stat. § 973.20(5)(a) is limited in two ways relevant to our present analysis. First, before a trial court may order restitution “there must be a showing that the defendant’s criminal activity was a substantial factor in causing” pecuniary injury to the victim. State v. Johnson, 2002 WI App 166, ¶16, 256 Wis. 2d 871, 649 N.W.2d 284 (emphasis added). In making its determination, however, a trial court may “take a defendant’s entire course of conduct into consideration” including “‘all facts and reasonable inferences concerning the defendant’s activity related to the ‘crime’ for which [he] was convicted, not just those facts necessary to support the elements of the specific charge.’” State v. Madlock, 230 Wis. 2d 324, 333, 602 N.W.2d 104 (1999) (emphasis added) (quoted source omitted). Put another way, we have said that a causal link for restitution purposes is established when “the defendant’s criminal act set into motion events that resulted in the damage or injury.” Rash, 260 Wis. 2d 369, ¶7.
¶14. Second, restitution is limited to “special damages … which could be recovered in a civil action against the defendant for his … conduct in the commission of a crime.” Wis. Stat. § 973.20(5)(a) (emphasis added). This limitation restrains a sentencing court from ordering the payment of “general damages,” that is, amounts intended to generally compensate the victim for damages such as pain and suffering, anguish, or humiliation. See State v. Behnke, 203 Wis. 2d 43, 60, 553 N.W.2d 265 (Ct. App. 1996). The term “special damages” as used in the criminal restitution context, means “[a]ny readily ascertainable pecuniary expenditure paid out because of the crime.” State v. Holmgren, 229 Wis. 2d 358, 365, 599 N.W. 2d 876 (Ct. App. 1999).